Infrastructure Of The Networking

In this report we are going to discuss the infrastructure of the networking. There are following things that play an

Infrastructure Of The Networking

Network Infrastructure

important role in the networking such as DNS, Directories and other management techniques that are used to restrict access controls for the number of users. A network is a group of two or more computers systems connected together (Wong & Yeung, 2009). It can be of any type such as (Local area network) LAN, (Wide area network) WAN, (Metropolitan area network) MAN, (Campus area network) CAN and (Home area networks) HAN. Different topologies are used to make network connected that include star, mesh, bus and ring topology. Network is also based on protocols that define some rules used to make communication between computers using signals. It can also be represented as the architecture that can either be client server or peer to peer. Network infrastructure refers to the hardware and software resources of an entire network that enable network connectivity, communication, operations and management of an enterprise network. It is the way to provide path between users, servers and applications using Internet. The network infrastructure is connected to make external, internal or both types of communication (Iniewski, McCrosky, & Minoli, 2001). When in the single household share the same multiple computers are interconnected making the basic network infrastructure, not depending whether the computers share information with each other or not.

Task 1

    1. Domain Name System

Domain Name system (DNS) is the protocol through which domain names are mapped to the IP addresses. It is not necessary to run a name server to perform DNS lookups on a system. Without a server to resolve a domain name or the proper rights, users would have to know the IP address of each of the web pages or computers you wanted to access. It is the process by which internet domain names are translated into the internet protocol address (Ng, 2013). Domain names are much easier to remember than the mac or IP address. There is no simple way to store the list at the central place so the domain names and IP address are distributed over the internet in a hierarchy of authority. Access providers are used to map the domain names over the internet requests or forward them to other servers in the internet. The domain names are represented in the form of alphabets so they are easy to remember unlike the IP addresses that are represented in the numeric form separated by (.) and hence represents different classes that are used for different purposes. As the internet uses IP address so whenever there is domain name therefore the DNS service has to be translated into corresponding IP address. The process of converting remains until the corresponding IP address is found otherwise it will keep requesting.

Example:

The domain name www.example.com might translate to 198.105.232.4

    1. Active Directory, OpenLDAP, eDirectory

Active Directory:

Active Directory is used to stores the directory data and manages the communication between domain and users, that may include directory searches, login process and user authentication. Active directory is the special purpose database that is windows OS directly service used to facilitate the working interconnected, complex and different network resources in a unified manner (Allen & Hunter, 2009). It provides authentication of the windows based computers centrally. It also enables Network Administrators to assign policies, deploy software, and apply critical updates to an organization. This directory is used to handle a complex and large number of operations such as read and search operations.

OpenLDAP:

LDAP stands for lightweight Directory Access Protocol is a standard technology for building computer network directories. It is the kind of software protocols that helps to enable to locate organizations, individuals and other resources such as files and devices that are found in networks, these files can either be public networks or cooperate network. The purpose of directory is to identify where in the network is something is located. The benefit of this directory is that it can be distributed over different servers. This database is used to store information and data about devices, applications and other aspects of the computer networks (Desmond, Richards, Allen, & Lowe-Norris, 2013). It plays an important role in the development of intra-nets and Internet applications.

eDirectory:

eDirectory is the service software that is used to centrally manages access to resources on multiple computers and servers within the range of networks. It is the part the Novell Compliance Management Platform as it is not a standalone software.

    1. User, Resource and Service Management

User Management

User management refers to the concept of having profile of the user that is based upon user name password and other information that is used to authenticate the user. It has created to determine the tasks perform by the user according to their skills as mentioned in their profile. It is the service that enables the management to create and manage login credentials for each user separately. There are different benefits of this approach we can restrict or limit the following things such as:

  • Made the file read-only
  • Is there any authority for user to update the file
  • To made the application for users only

User management makes the things easier such as

  • the user can only access the pages they need
  • it also help to make system secure as no one can access system without login authentication

Resource Management

The Resource Management application enables resource requesters, such as project managers or change managers, to create resource plans and request resources. It is used to assign resources according to the tasks. It makes the system more efficient by using the resources in good manner such as which resources are available and which are busy at the given time.

Service Management

Service management is the concept that deals with the customer focused approach to delivered information technology. It is basically used to define the relationship with customers and their values. It is performed by the organization to maintain the low cost services and to plan, deliver, operate and control the IT services offered to customers.

    1. Access Control

Access control is the security technique that can be used to regulate who and what can use resources, that is which users have enough permission and rights to use specific resources in a computing environment. It is also implemented on networking system such as the proprietary network is restricted at the end point devices by having a defined security policy (Carroll, 2004). The working of this security is based on the authentication and authorization of the potential users by verifying and validating the users of login process.

There are two main types of access control

  1. Physical

As the name depicts physical access control limits access to campuses, buildings, rooms and physical IT assets.

  1. Logical

Logical access limits connections to computer networks, system files and data.

Access control restricts the data used by any particular user as well as it also uses other methods to secure the system and data from viruses or unauthorized access. The benefit of access control is that it can restrict any resources or data selectively, as needed for different users. There is need of permission to access such type of resources or data called authorization.

There are four basic types of access control as mentioned below

  • Mandatory Access Control

  • Discretionary Access Control

  • Role-based Access Control

  • Rule-based Access Control

It may include authentication, authorization, identification and access approval for login authentication and other security purposes.

Task 2

    1. Directory Structure

The management of essential operation components, i-e policies, processes, equipment, data and human resources is the form of infrastructure management. There are different categories in which the infrastructure management is divided such as

  • System management
  • Network management
  • Storage management

It reduces the duplication of effort and maintains effective change management policies.

The directory structure is the organization and collection of files into a hierarchy of folders. There are some limitations that every directory should meet such as it should be stable and scalable; there should not be any choice for any fundamentally changes. There is the term “folder” used by computer system for many years to help or allow the user to keep track and make things accessible to him. This structure has the top level construct organization that is subdivided in the limited way to make the system effective and efficient.

    1. Technologies that supports network infrastructure
  • Networking infrastructure supported by Server

Network management need to be continuous and have enough knowledge of the entire network infrastructure. Basically the networking infrastructure is the organized server support. We have to organize and enable them to support to work better together.

  • Clients

A client is a part of the client-server model that can be a piece of software or hardware that access the service made available for the clients by the server. Client and server may run on the same machine and are connected via some inter-process communication.

  • Routers

A router is device that is used to forward data packet over the Internet. A router needs at least two LAN’s and WAN’s and its ISP’s network. Routers are located at gateway is used to connect two or more networks. Router sends data packet that contain header, contains information about the destination and address information. After validation from the routing table it sends the packet to the next network. Different protocols are used such as ICMP to make communication with each other.

  • Switches

A switch is used to connect two computer devices with each other that use packet switching to receive, process and forward data to the destination device. A network switch has multiple ports network bridge that is uses hardware address to send and receive data using data link layer.

  • Printers

Printer is a device used to print text, numbers and other objects over the paper. It has different types for different purposes as mentioned below:

  • Daisy-wheel
  • Dot matrix
  • Ink jet
  • Laser
  • Thermal printer
  • Line-printer
  • LCD & LED printers

The characteristics of the printer include:

  • Speed
  • Quality of type
  • Impact or non-impact
  • Graphics
  • Fonts
  • Firewalls

Firewall is the system that is used to prevent the unauthorized access to private networks. It is used to control the incoming and outgoing network traffic. It is the security system that can be either software or hardware. The working of firewall is just same as the barrier that differentiates between the trusted or untrusted networks. The policy is defined by the firewall allows only the trustworthy network by denying the all other untrusted networks.

  • Wireless access

A wireless access point is used that allows the wireless devices to the wired network using Wi-Fi that is it is connected to the router as a standalone device.

  • Cabled access

It is a noncommercial system of broadcasting on television channels made available to independent or community groups.

  • Remote workstation

A workstation is the more faster and powerful computer that is used for individual task instead of personal computers. It is the facility that allows us to log onto a network on distant location.

  • 3G based remote access

Many field-based applications do not have access to a wired connection to the Internet and this is where GPRS and 3G cellular technology can solve major connectivity problems. This system consists of wireless communication module that must have 3G SIM card and wireless router.

    1. Users, shares, security groups and organizational groups
  • Users

A person who uses computer is known as user. There is a category of users that starts from invoice to expert programmers. There is another category known as end users that runs the application programs to complete their daily life tasks. A user can have account that is use to validate and verify the login authentication, used to identify the users and make the system secure from unauthorized access. There is the difference between end users and developer but both are said to be users.

  • Shares

There is the requirement for business in telecoms industry to share infrastructure. There can be different ways and methods to share infrastructure depending on the country.

  • Security groups

Group is defined as the collection of people who share some common work, feeling and mutual influence. A security group is the sets of IP filter rules that are applied to an instance’s networking. When a user faces a problem while launching the network instance, as a result he is unable to make contact with the instance of the network. All projects have a “default” security group, which is applied to instances that have no other security group defined.

  • Organizational groups

An organization consists of different peoples that share same interests, collective goals and have connection with external environment. Organizational units are Active Directory containers into which you can place users, groups, computers, and other organizational units. An organizational unit cannot contain objects from other domains. We use different organizational groups to create an administrative model that can be scalable and is scaled by any size (Champoux, 1996). Each organization contains their default groups that consists of the following

  • Admin
  • Clients
  • Users

Task 3

3.1. User Management Controls

  • Group Allocation

A sub-volume in the file system that has the maintenance of its own track of free blocks and data is known as group allocation. It makes the multiple operations to be done at the same time and allowing one write at any time.

  • Time accessed

Time accessed refers to the concept that it is the time from the start of one storage device access to the time when the next access can be started. It has two main things i-e latency and transfer time.

  • Authentication

Authentication is the process of verification and validation. It is done to make system secure from unauthorized access. It is used to confirm a identification of the person by verifying his documents or information stored.

  • Password policies

A password policy defines some set of rules and constraints to make the password strong that cannot be broken easily and encouraging the users to make their use properly. Different organization gives training to password awareness and also some governments have different authentication frameworks.

3.2. Certificate Services

  • Authorities

Certificates services running on windows OS receives different requests for the digital certification over HTTP. The authority in the network is used to identify the user’s request for the digital certificate and requests the CA to issue it. It also manages the security credentials.

  • Deployment and Management

After the deployment of the certificate the management of certification authority includes two main categories such as

  • Infrequent tasks

It includes key configuration tasks.

  • Recurring tasks

It involves common operations of certification authority.

  • Encryption

Encryption is the process of encode data into secret code, so it cannot be understand by unauthorized person. It must have password and key to decode it.

  • Virtual Private Network (VPN)

A network is constructed by pubic wires to create a private network is known as VPN. It is the secure way to transmit data from the remote user to company’s network using tunnel.

  • Public Key Infrastructure (PKI)

PKI is the combination of software, hardware, people and policies to provide, manage, use and distribute the public key encryption.

3.3. Logging

  • Audit trails

An audit trails have following things such has security relevant and other set of records, destination and source records that are used to provide the information about activities.

  • Security logs

The purpose of IT security is to make unauthorized access forbidden and make the system secure by logon process. The security logs have different benefits such as for someone who attempt to make system to comprise. We analyze the log event to track the system and to expose that whether the system is attacked or not.

Conclusion:

The conclusion of this report is that the infrastructure of the network is based on different techniques and technologies. As we have discussed different things that are the part of this structure, the directories and their categories, DNS and other factors that affect this infrastructure in some way. The technique call access control is used to minimize the access of users towards data and resources that is which users have enough permission and rights to use specific resources in a computing environment. It is also implemented on networking system such as the proprietary network is restricted at the end point devices by having a defined security policy. As we have mentioned the DNS it is much easier to remember than the mac or IP address. There is no simple way to store the list at the central place so the domain names and IP address are distributed over the Internet in a hierarchy of authority.

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